Top 3 Issues Involved When Buying or Selling a Business

Updated February 21, 2017

By William Bruce

America is a nation of small business owners.  In fact, there are over 22 million of us.

Why do people want to go into business for themselves?  In surveys done several years ago, the number one response was the potential for higher income.  But now in the most recent survey, the top reason was “control of one’s own destiny.”  The change is most likely a reaction to the recent economic times.

More and more individuals are now viewing small business ownership as a viable alternative to the vagaries of corporate America.  As a friend said recently, “There is no more job security.  The only job security you’ve got nowadays is the person looking at you in the mirror.”

As a business broker, I’m often asked about the issues involved in buying or selling an existing  business.  In my opinion, these are the top three issues:

1. Confidentiality

Confidentiality is critical to the successful transfer of a business.  If word gets out that a business is for sale, several things start happening and none of them are good for the seller or buyer of the business.  First, key employees start looking for other jobs, fearing that a new owner may not retain them.  In the uncertainty, customers may begin shopping elsewhere.  Suppliers get nervous.  Competitors can take advantage of the situation.

This is why a prospective business buyer will be asked to sign a non-disclosure confidentiality agreement early in the process of looking at a possible business acquisition. In this agreement, the potential buyer confirms that he/she will not disclose the fact that the business is for sale except to professional advisors.

If you show that you take the need for confidentiality seriously, you will be regarded as the professional that you are.

2. Valuation

Nothing causes the buyers and sellers of businesses more anxiety than the problem of valuation. The question of selling price haunts both parties. The seller doesn’t want to price his business too low and “leave money on the table.”  On the other hand, the buyer of the business is afraid he’ll pay too much and not get the best possible price.

Formal, fully documented business appraisals are now readily available.  In addition, there are rule of thumb guidelines that can be used to quickly estimate the value of a business.  As just one example, we know that a full service restaurant with liquor license is worth about 30% of its annual gross revenue as an ongoing business.  This assumes – big assumption – that the business is earning the average bottom line profit for its peer group.

There are rule of thumb guidelines for almost all categories of business from ice cream stands to manufacturing plants.  But again, these guidelines provide only quick estimates.  And written, fully documented business appraisals are now done by several respected national firms at a cost similar to real estate appraisals.

3. Financing

The toughest problem facing business buyers and sellers in recent years has been financing.  No question about it.

These are five possible sources for business acquisition loans:

BANKS – Although most people seeking a loan to buy a business will think first of a traditional bank loan, I can tell you from years of business brokerage experience that banks generally do not make business acquisition loans.  There are exceptions but they’re rare.

SBA – The SBA, through its approved lenders, provides business acquisition loans.  The SBA does not make direct loans, but rather guarantees a portion of the loan that is made by the approved lender.   It’s known as the SBA 7(a) program.  Wells Fargo Bank is currently the top volume SBA lender nationally.

The SBA route for a business acquisition loan is sometimes frustrating because of the time and detail that is involved.  However, keep in mind that the SBA will approve loans that others have turned down and will usually approve them with a smaller down payment.  In most cases, it’s worth the wait.

FAMILY – Many times the older generation in a family will loan the down payment or the entire amount needed to a promising member of the family’s younger generation.  If your family is willing to loan you the money, one word of advice is in order.  Have a very clear understanding as to how the debt is to be handled and put it in writing in the form of a legal note.

THE SELLER – In the majority of the business transfers that I handle as a business broker, the owner of the business finances a portion of the purchase price for the buyer.  Some sellers cannot offer owner financing for a variety of reasons, but when they can, it conveniently solves the problem of financing.

The fact that the business owner is willing to finance the sale of his company provides more than a convenient finance plan.  More importantly, it provides a strong validation of the owner’s belief that the business will support the owner and earn enough cash to pay back the loan.  You can’t get any better recommendation on the business than this.

The normal down payment for owner financing ranges generally from around 30% to 50% of the purchase price of the business.  Interest rates are generally market driven but there is more flexibility here than in other forms of financing.

401(K) FUNDS AND IRA ACCOUNTS – The use of these funds to buy a business, without tax penalty, is a fairly recent development.  Several national CPA and attorney groups have developed a plan, approved by the IRS, which allows you to use your funds for business acquisition.  There are legal and accounting fees involved, but they are a small fraction of the tax penalty that would be assessed for cashing in these accounts early.

The above ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­five sources of financing are not exclusive to each other.  I recently handled a transaction in which three of the five sources were used to buy the business.

It’s called creativity!

For further reading, here are additional related articles:

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William Bruce is an Accredited Business Broker and Appraiser assisting buyers and sellers of privately held businesses in the transfer of ownership.  His practice includes consulting services nationally on issues of business valuation and transfer.  He currently serves as president of the American Business Brokers Association.  He may be reached at (251) 990-5934 or by email at  His business brokerage website may be viewed at
Posted in Business Valuation & Appraisal, Buying or Selling a Business | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 16 Comments

The U.S. Senate Race in Alabama: My Thoughts on the Candidates.

The deadline for qualification has passed and we now have a slate of eleven candidates in the Republican primary.  There is little doubt that Alabama’s next senator will come out of the Republican primary in a state where the Democratic Party is irrelevant in statewide elections.

The special election is to fill the seat of Jeff Sessions who resigned to become U.S. Attorney General.

So for what it’s worth, here is my characterization of the candidates, in alphabetical order:

JAMES BERETTA  –  A Rhode Island native currently practicing osteopathic medicine as a pain management doctor in the Birmingham area.

JOSEPH BREAULT  –  Unknown.  All anyone knows is that he paid the $3,480 qualifying fee.

RANDY BRINSON  –  An online Google search reveals he was head of some kind of religious organization.

MO BROOKS  –  Current North Alabama Congressman.  Smart guy who graduated in three years “with highest honors” from Duke.

DOMINIC GENTILE  –  Owns a janitorial service business in Birmingham.

KAREN JACKSON  –  Unknown.  A $3,480 egotistical folly?

MARY MAXWELL  –  Unknown.    Ditto.

ROY MOORE  –  Former Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court, twice removed from office for improper conduct on the bench.  Additionally, he’s had two failed runs for governor.


TRIP PITTMAN  –  Baldwin County businessman and a member of the Alabama State Senate.  Qualified to run only hours before the deadline and only after fellow State Senator Del Marsh declined to run.

LUTHER STRANGE  –  Tainted, tainted, tainted.

As I view the election at this early stage, it’s a three-man race between Luther Strange, Roy Moore and Mo Brooks to get into the two-man runoff.  Trip Pitman might possibly be in the mix depending on his fundraising prowess.

The first primary voting will be on August 15 and the runoff will be September 26.

Luther Strange is so tainted by the smelly Bentley appointment that I believe it’s possible that he will not even make the runoff despite the millions of dollars available to him from Washington as the “incumbent.”  This would be amusing.

Roy Moore has a solid core of supporters among Alabama Republican voters amounting to about 30% of the electorate.  But he’s been mostly unsuccessful in expanding that base.  His core base gives him a good chance of making the runoff in the senate race, but if he does, I suspect he’ll get beat in the two-man faceoff.

To have a chance, Trip Pittman needs money to establish name identification outside of Southwest Alabama.  With money, he could be a dark horse contender.

The man to watch, in my opinion, is Mo Brooks.  He’s very bright, quick on his feet, and can often turn a memorable phrase.  He’s already talking about “swamp critters.”

And Brooks is the guy who made a fool out of MSNBC reporter Contessa Brewer during an interview.  Reporter Brewer mistook a southern accent for ignorance.  As Mo Brooks was trying to explain his stand on budget issues, she mockingly asked if he had a degree in economics.  His answer placed scrambled eggs all over the reporter’s face.  The amusing exchange can be viewed here:

Anyway, stay tuned.  It should be interesting.

Posted in Mobile, Fairhope & Gulf Shores, Alabama | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Record Number of Small Businesses Sold in First Quarter of 2017, the Internet’s largest business-for-sale marketplace, reported recently a record number of first quarter sold business transactions in early 2017.

A total of 2,368 closed transactions were reported in the first quarter of 2017, a 29 percent increase from this time last year. Though the spike in small business transactions may be partly due to a rush of buyers and sellers looking to close deals around the New Year, a healthy economy, strong small business financials, and access to financing are also enticing more buyers and sellers to the market.

Businesses sold in the first quarter grossed a median revenue of $518,159, an 8.4 percent increase the first quarter of 2016.  Median cash flow also increased, up 6.6 percent year-over-year to $117,275.  These key financial indicators are the highest totals since BizBuySell first started tracking data in 2007.

“After a record-setting year of small business transactions in 2016, it’s great to see continued small business growth in early 2017,” said Bob House, president of and “Not only are more small businesses changing hands, but healthy financials are positioning these new owners for continued success. While the number of business transactions may stabilize throughout the remainder of the year, all signs point to a bright future for small businesses overall.”

Over the past few quarters, the number of small businesses listed for sale has steadily increased. That trend carried over into 2017 as total listings increased 3.8 percent from last year. These newly-listed businesses boast growing median revenues and cash flows, suggesting there’s still a strong supply of healthy businesses available for interested buyers. Baby Boomers looking to capitalize on today’s favorable conditions and exit small business ownership for retirement are fueling the market supply. At the same time, younger buyers are finding attractive, healthier businesses for sale with greater access to lending, again pointing to a well-balanced market.

“While we anticipate transaction levels should stabilize over the next few months, all small business indicators point to a healthy market for buying and selling in 2017,” said Bob House. “A strong supply of attractive listings and qualified buyers, and an administration looking to reduce costs for small businesses should fuel the market over the upcoming months.”

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William Bruce is an Accredited Business Broker and Appraiser assisting buyers and sellers of privately held businesses in the transfer of ownership.  He participated in this survey by  His practice includes consulting services nationally on issues of business valuation and transfer.  He currently serves as president of the American Business Brokers Association.  He may be reached at (251) 990-5934 or by email at  His business brokerage website may be viewed at
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Selling a Business: Here’s How to Successfully Meet with a Prospective Buyer.

business-meetingPrevious articles have discussed the importance of having a good reason for selling your business, getting the business ready for salesetting the right asking pricetaking your business to market and buyer acquisition financing.  In this article, we will share some advice on how to successfully hold the first face-to-face meeting with a prospective buyer of the business.

The meeting with a prospect is extremely important.  It’s your chance to put the prospect at ease and show off the business in its best light.

You will probably want to schedule the visit after hours so as not to arouse any suspicions among your employees.  Or, you can schedule the meeting in your broker’s office if for some reason you don’t want to host it in your business.  However, I think it best, if possible, to hold the meeting at your location.  It gives the prospect a better feel for your operation.  If you are using a business broker, he will arrive with the prospect, make the introductions and facilitate the meeting.

The first meeting is sort of a “look see” for both parties.  The prospect is checking out you and the business while you are sizing him up.  It’s important to remain cordial and open.

The ideal meeting will go something like this:

  • First, you welcome the prospect into your office and make sure everyone has a chair and is comfortable. (Of course, it goes without saying that you have cleaned up the place and thrown away all of the old Dominoes Pizza lunch boxes!)
  • It’s usually best after the initial get acquainted chitchat, to give the prospect a brief history of your business and a succinct description of your current operation. (You might want to even practice this presentation to make sure you cover the important points without rambling.  If you’re using a broker, he will be with you and will help guide the meeting.)
  • Remain friendly and informal, call the prospect by name often, and ask periodically if the prospect has any questions. Answer any questions openly and honestly.
  • Be enthusiastic. Point out how much fun you’ve had running the business.  Let the prospect hear and feel how he could experience the same enjoyment you have.
  • As the meeting in your office winds down, offer the prospect a tour of your facility. Give this tour some thought beforehand, so that you can address the points that you want to during the walk-thru.  Point out anything that will help clarify any points you make in the meeting in your office.
  • As the meeting ends, you say something like this, “Well thanks for coming out and taking a look. You’ll probably have some additional questions, so don’t hesitate to get back in touch with me (or Mr. Broker if you’re using one).  I know this will be a big decision for you and we have nothing to hide, so just let me know what I can do to assist you with the process.”   Put these thoughts into your own words and they will leave a favorable impression in the prospect’s mind.

From the “school of hard knocks,” I can also give you some advice on things you DON’T want to do in the initial meeting with a prospect:

  • Don’t overcomplicate your business. Simplify it.  Don’t make it sound like the management of the company is so specialized that only a brain surgeon can do it.  I’m being facetious of course, but be careful not to scare off the prospect by planting the doubt in his mind that he would not be capable of running your business.
  • Don’t hide any problems. If there are any problems with the business, get them out up front.  There is never a better time to get any problems out on the table than in the meeting.  (See discussion below.)
  • In the initial meeting, it’s usually best to stay away from price and terms. If the prospect brings it up, just say, “My broker here has all of that information and if your will, get with him on that later.”

The importance of getting any problems out in the open up front cannot be overemphasized.  It’s partly a psychological issue.  If you bring up a problem in the beginning and discuss it openly, the importance of that problem is minimized in the prospect’s mind, compared to having it pop up unexpectedly later in the process.

For example, let’s say there is a tax lien against your business for unpaid payroll withholding taxes.  If you bring it up initially by saying something like, “By the way, I do want to mention for the sake of being completely open and honest that we have a tax lien against the business which is being taken care of (or which will be taken care of at closing) so that you will buy all of the assets of the business free and clear without any liens or other encumbrances.”

When you mention it like this, you win points for honesty and openness and it minimizes the problem.  I’ve seen many transactions fall apart when such problems are not disclosed and are later discovered by the prospect.  When discovered later – as they always are – the problem will usually “torpedo” the transaction.

This is such an important point that it bears repeating: DON’T HIDE ANY PROBLEMS.  TALK ABOUT THEM IN THE BEGINNING!

Now that I’ve been overly redundant, let’s move on.  The next article will discuss how to handle written offers to purchase the business.

For further reading, here are additional related articles:

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William Bruce is an Accredited Business Broker and Appraiser assisting buyers and sellers of privately held businesses in the transfer of ownership.  His practice includes consulting services nationally on issues of business valuation and transfer.  He currently serves as president of the American Business Brokers Association.  He may be reached at (251) 990-5934 or by email at
Posted in Buying or Selling a Business | Tagged , , , , | 2 Comments

Record Number of U.S. Small Businesses Were Bought and Sold in 2016, the Internet’s largest business-for-sale marketplace, reported recently
that annual small business transactions reached record levels in 2016, topping 2015’s totals by 8.6 percent.

The results are included in BizBuySell’s annual Insight Report, which aggregates statistics from business-for-sale transactions reported by participating business brokers nationwide.

A total of 7,842 closed transactions were reported in 2016, the highest yearly total of small business sales since BizBuySell first started tracking data in 2007.  Primary factors cited for the reported growth include (1) an improving small business environment, (2) more owners looking to sell, (3) more qualified buyers on the market and (4) better financing options.

Included in the total number of businesses reported sold were 17 businesses that changed hands in Birmingham, Alabama at an average selling price of 3.15 times cash flow, also referred to as discretionary earnings.  There were 93 transfers reported in New Orleans with an average selling price of 3.12 times cash flow, and 207 sales recorded in Nashville with an average valuation multiple of 2.64.

Interestingly, the highest average valuations expressed as multiple of discretionary earnings were reported in North Carolina.  The lowest were in Connecticut.

“After several years of strong business-for-sale activity, it is great to see even more growth in 2016,” Bob House, President of said. “Not only are more small businesses changing hands, but healthier businesses put the new owners in a great position for continued success. This bodes well for the market, but also points to a bright future for small businesses overall.”

With a record number of Baby Boomers retiring from business ownership and buyers attracted to stronger financials and an increasing number of millennials looking to enter small business ownership, signs point to a well-balanced market.

“Overall, small business indicators point to a healthy market for buying and selling in 2017,” House said. “Although there will certainly be issues to watch under the new Trump administration, as long as small business financials continue to improve and a steady supply of listings enter the market, transaction activity should continue its momentum well into the new year.”

Author’s full disclosure: William Bruce participated in this survey as a business sales, mergers and acquisitions adviser reporting completed transactions in which he was involved to BizBuySell.

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William Bruce is an Accredited Business Intermediary and Appraiser assisting buyers and sellers of privately held businesses in the transfer of ownership.  His practice includes consulting services nationally to business owners and buyers.
He currently serves as president of the American Business Brokers Association.  He may be reached at (251) 990-5934 or by email at
Posted in Business Valuation & Appraisal, Buying or Selling a Business | Tagged | 2 Comments

Carnival Cruise Lines Returns to Mobile, Alabama. A Word of Caution is in Order.


Mobile, Alabama Cruise Ship Terminal

Carnival Cruise Lines is returning to Mobile, Alabama today.  We’re excited about the return of a cruise ship to the historic and beautiful Azalea City, home of America’s first Mardi Gras celebration.  (Hey, I’ll bet you thought Mardi Gras started in New Orleans?)

But in the midst of this enthusiasm, a word of caution is in order.

Mobile’s recent history with Carnival has not been financially beneficial. Five years ago Carnival Cruise Lines shafted the City of Mobile for $20 million.  After enticing the city to spend over $20 million for a cruise ship terminal facility, Carnival pulled its ship out of Mobile after a short tenure.  Carnival abruptly left town without even the good manners of a courtesy notice to city leaders.

It was a “Wham bam, thank you ma’am” without the “thank you.”

Carnival Corporation and  PLC (its sister corporation) comprise eleven individual cruise line brands, operating a combined fleet of 96 ships.  Brands include Carnival, Cunard, Holland America, Princess, Seabourn and four others.

Carnival Corporation was initially formed in 1972.  After achieving its position as one of the world’s most popular cruise lines, the company made an initial public offering of 20% of its common stock in 1987. This provided an influx of capital that allowed the company to begin its expansion through acquisitions. In 1989 its first acquisition was the premium operator Holland America Line.  Others quickly followed.

The CEO and owner of controlling interest in Carnival is Micky Arison, son of the founder.  Arison was born in Israel of Romanian ancestry and now lives in Miami as an American citizen.  Forbes lists him as one of the world’s wealthiest individuals.

In 1988, Carnival Cruise Lines expanded into airlines with the purchase of Pacific Interstate Airlines, which was subsequently renamed Carnival Air Lines.  This venture ended ten years later in bankruptcy court with creditors holding the bag.

Micky Arison’s companies are not ideal corporate citizens.

Arison also owns the professional basketball team, Miami Heat.  Miami area governments built Arison a $250 million dollar waterfront stadium several years ago in exchange for a rental agreement.  At 10 years into the rental contract, thanks to “creative” accounting by Arison, Miami had received no rent for the stadium, according to a columnist for the Miami New Times.

Sound familiar?

Please Mobile, Alabama leaders, keep your eyes wide open.  Don’t give away the keys to the city this time in exchange for a potentially worthless promise from Arison.

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William Bruce works in business mergers and acquisitions.  He is an Accredited Business Intermediary and currently serves as president of the American Business Brokers Association.  He may be reached at (251) 990-5934 or by email at

Posted in Gulf Coast Regional & National Economy, Mobile, Fairhope & Gulf Shores, Alabama | Tagged , | 3 Comments

Business Buyer-Seller Confidence Index Is Strong for Sale of Small to Medium Size Companies

by William Bruce, President                                                                                                                   American Business Brokers Association
business-for-sale, the Internet’s largest business-for-sale marketplace, recently announced the results of its annual Business Buyer-Seller Confidence Index, an indicator of small business buyer and seller sentiment on the current business-for-sale environment. The confidence index is calculated by evaluating survey responses of more than 1,500 people interested in either buying or selling a small business.

A separate score is calculated for both current small business owners interested in selling and prospective buyers currently exploring the market. Each group’s score ranges from 0 to 100, with 100 representing a perfect environment for buying or selling a business.

This year’s results showed sellers feeling more confident that they can successfully exit their businesses as the Seller Confidence Score grew to 62 after two consecutive years at 56. Not only did a majority of owners (58 percent) believe they can receive more money for their businesses than they could last year, but more than 90 percent were optimistic enough to say they will be able to achieve the same or higher sale price next year. Respondents to both questions responded with higher, more optimistic percentages than did the same last year. Overall, this is a good indication that sellers have seen conditions improve since the recession and are confident that favorable conditions will continue in 2016.

Sellers also indicated an increased number of buyers in the market this year. When asked to identify the biggest issues limiting their ability to sell, just 12 percent said they couldn’t find a buyer – a significant drop from the 27 percent who indicated a shortage of buyers in 2014. Perhaps even more importantly, 43 percent of sellers said they have no issues and could successfully exit their businesses right now compared to just 23 percent who felt the same level of confidence last year.

“Small business owners are definitely viewing today’s market as a great opportunity to sell,” said Bob House, Group GM of and “We’re also seeing this increased confidence translating into more owners actually listing their small business on the market. The number of for-sale businesses on reached a six-year high this year, driven by increasing small business financial performance in the post recession period.”

My own business sales, mergers and acquisitions practice based here on America’s Gulf Coast reflects this national trend.  We’re busier in my office now than we’ve been since early 2007.

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William Bruce is an Accredited Business Intermediary and Appraiser assisting buyers and sellers of privately held businesses in the transfer of ownership.  His practice includes consulting services nationally on issues of business valuation and transfer.  He currently serves as president of the American Business Brokers Association.  He may be reached at (251) 990-5934 or by email at  His business brokerage website may be viewed at


Posted in Business Valuation & Appraisal, Buying or Selling a Business | Tagged , , | 4 Comments

Banks Rated Strongest to Weakest in Mobile and Baldwin Counties, Alabama

Wells FargoIt’s been a year since we reviewed the local banking scene, so we offer this update.

Banks are often placed on a pedestal in the public mind, but they are like any other category of business in that some are stronger and better managed than others.

One publicly available bank rating service is  This system employs more than 20 tests to measure the capital adequacy, asset quality, profitability and liquidity of each rated bank. Individual performance levels are determined from publicly available regulatory filings and are compared to asset-size peer norms, industry standards and key benchmarks. Combined results form the basis for the star ratings. assigns a 1-to-5 star ranking with five stars representing the highest rating. Institutions with satisfactory performance will generally receive a rating of three or more stars with the majority of banks falling into the three to four-star range.  Ratings are believed to be reliable but the information is not guaranteed.

In addition, events since the information was collected may have altered an institution’s financial condition.  The current ratings are based on the banks’ financial statement as of December 31, 2015.

Since our last report two banks with local branches have improved their rankings.  Community Bank and The First Bank, both based in Mississippi, have both moved up from from three stars to a four stars ranking.  But two banks lost a star. Woodforest National Bank, found in some Wal-Mart stores, dropped from five to four stars.  And First Community Bank moved down a notch to three stars.

One new bank that has entered the market since our last report is Birmingham-based Oakworth Capital Bank with a branch in downtown Mobile.  Alabama Attorney General Luther Strange is a founder of the bank and serves as a director.  The bank is top rated at five stars.

The following results for Mobile and Baldwin Counties, Alabama, are based on the banks’ financial statements as of December 31, 2015 as ranked by

5 Stars (superior, top rated):

  • Bank of the Ozarks
  • Oakworth Capital Bank
  • ServisFirst Bank
  • Wells Fargo Bank

4 Stars (sound, indicative of a sound financial condition):

  • Bancorp South
  • BB&T
  • BBVA Compass
  • Bryant Bank
  • Centennial Bank
  • Century Bank
  • Citizens Bank
  • Coastal Bank & Trust  (the trade name used by Synovus Bank in Alabama)
  • Community Bank
  • First Bank
  • Hancock Bank  (the trade name used by Whitney Bank in Alabama)
  • Iberia Bank
  • National Bank of Commerce
  • PNC Bank
  • RBC Bank
  • Regions Bank
  • Southpoint Bank
  • State Bank & Trust
  • TrustMark
  • United Bank
  • Woodforest National Bank

3 Stars (performing, indicative of a generally satisfactory financial condition):

  • First Community Bank
  • Merchants Bank

2 Stars (below peer group, indicative of a below average financial condition):

  • No banks in the local market were rated 2 stars

1 Star (lowest rated)

  • Commonwealth National Bank

Again this year Commonwealth National Bank is the only local bank with the lowest ranking.  The bank is headquartered at 2214 St. Stephens Road in Mobile.  In the composite summary of the bank, the rating service said, “Bankrate believes that, as of December 31, 2015, this bank exhibited a significantly below average condition, characterized by substantially lower than normal overall, sustainable profitability, very questionable asset quality, below standard capitalization and near normal liquidity.”

The “very questionable asset quality” noted by Bankrate refers primarily, it is assumed, to Commonwealth’s loans receivable and most probably represents a significant problem for any stronger banks considering a rescue by acquisition of the troubled bank.

In summary, please keep in mind that these ratings are based on information furnished by the banks as of December 31, 3015.  Things could have changed since then.  And there are other bank rating services whose rankings may differ.

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William Bruce has served as a bank director.  He is a business broker, an Accredited Business Intermediary and business appraiser.  He consults nationally on issues involved in business transfers and valuation.  He may be reached at  or (251) 990-5934.  He currently serves as president of the American Business Brokers Association.
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